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3936 x 2669 pixels 720 x 480 pixels 5568 x 3712 pixels 640 x 427 pixels
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Spacecraft nadir point: 46.2° N, 7.8° E

Photo center point: 45.2° N, 7.6° E

Photo center point by machine learning: 45.21° N, 7.58° E

Nadir to Photo Center: South

Spacecraft Altitude: 221 nautical miles (409km)
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3936 pixels 2669 pixels No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site Download Image
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5568 pixels 3712 pixels No No Download Image
640 pixels 427 pixels No No Download Image
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Image Caption:

An astronaut onboard the International Space Station (ISS) took this nighttime photograph of the city of Turin in northwestern Italy, home to many Italian car companies and automotive manufacturing plants. Through Italy's 2018 Smart Road Decree, Turin was chosen as a test site for autonomous driving vehicles. The smart road circuit map for self-driving cars has been traced onto the photo below (resolution approximately 15 meters per pixel) using image editing software and GIS techniques.

Astronaut photographs of cities at night can be clear enough to discern specific features like roads and buildings, as well as dark spaces such as farmland, bodies of water, and mountains. Strings of lights trace the roads that connect Turin's city center to the mountain valleys of the Italian Alps. Small pockets of light indicate the presence of towns. An outline of the Po River follows the eastern border of Turin as it begins its route from the Alps toward Italy's agricultural heartland.