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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS064-E-14839 Date: Dec. 2020
Geographic Region: MADAGASCAR

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This photograph, taken by an astronaut from the International Space Station (ISS), captures the estuarine ecosystem of the Loza Bay wetlands (// in northwest Madagascar. Estuaries are coastal habitats where fresh water from rivers - in this case, the Ankofia and Maevarano - mixes with salt water from the ocean in partially enclosed basins.

Rivers carry oxidized sediment loads down from Madagascar's high central plateau toward the Mozambique Channel (not pictured). This reddish-brown sediment-laden freshwater mixes with the clearer, blue saltwater that sloshes in and out of the estuary from the sea with the movement of the tides.

Mangrove forests are common around Madagascar's major estuaries as the brackish waters create the environmental conditions in which the trees thrive. Mangrove forests play a vital role in sustaining coastal communities - not only as resources for agriculture and aquaculture, but as sources for fuelwood, charcoal production, and timber. However, the unsustainable harvesting of these mangroves and other local vegetation and wildlife threatens the biodiversity of coastal Madagascar.

Further Reading: NASA Earth Observatory (2018, November 4) A Close-Up View of the Betsiboka.

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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 611k
Mission: ISS064  
Roll - Frame: E - 14839
Geographical Name: MADAGASCAR  
Center Lat x Lon: 14.7S x 48.0E
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 10
Camera: N8
Camera Tilt: 24   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 400  
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: N   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number:  
Date: 20201219   YYYYMMDD
Time: 135017   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 16.4S  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 48.3E  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 250   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 227   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: 18   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views:  
Water Views:  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views:  
City Views:  
Photo is not associated with any sequences

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