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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS031-E-143143 Date: Jun. 2012
Geographic Region: SAUDI ARABIA
Feature: JUBAIL AT NIGHT, PETROCHEMICAL REFINERIES, PERSIAN GULF

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  ISS031-E-143143 (19 June 2012) --- Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia at night is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 31 crew member on the International Space Station. The city of Al Jubayl (or Jubail) is located on the Saudi Arabian coastline of the Persian Gulf. The city has a history extending back more than 7,000 years, but since 1975 it has been associated with the heavy industries of petrochemical refining and production, fertilizer production and steel works. At night, these industrial areas form a brightly lit region (center) to the south of the residential and commercial center of Al Jubayl (characterized by green-gray lighting). An artificial peninsula extending into the Persian Gulf to the northeast hosts supertanker docks and petroleum storage facilities. The Persian Gulf to the north and northeast is devoid of lights; likewise, the open desert to the south-southeast provides a stark contrast to the well-lit urban and industrial areas. A bright circle of light located within the heavy industrial area (center) cannot be resolved in this photograph, but is likely a concentration of lights associated with ongoing processing or construction activities. The approximate scale of the feature - hundreds of meters in diameter - is consistent with multiple stationary light sources, particularly if the light from those sources is accentuated due to the camera's low light settings.  
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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 118k
Mission: ISS031  
Roll - Frame: E - 143143
Geographical Name: SAUDI ARABIA  
Features: JUBAIL AT NIGHT, PETROCHEMICAL REFINERIES, PERSIAN GULF  
Center Lat x Lon: 27.1N x 49.5E
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 10
 
Camera: N5
 
Camera Tilt: 23   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 200  
 
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: W   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number:  
 
Date: 20120619   YYYYMMDD
Time: 202114   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 27.7N  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 50.9E  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 355   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 211   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: -39   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views:  
Water Views:  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views:  
City Views:  
Photo is not associated with any sequences


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