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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS017-E-13769 Date: Aug. 2008
Geographic Region: TUNISIA
Feature: TUNIS METRO AREA, LAKE OF TUNIS

Ordering information for space photography
 
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  Tunis, Tunisia

The city of Tunis, capital of Tunisia, is located along the Mediterranean coast of northern Africa. Sharing much of its history with famous Carthage to the north, Tunis was also destroyed by the Roman Empire in approximately 146 BC. Tunis, however, was rebuilt by the Romans and became an important agricultural center. Modern Tunis serves as the administrative center for the whole of Tunisia, and as a commercial hub in the northern part of the country.

The urban area of Tunis is located on a flat coastal plain, and is distinguished in this astronaut photograph from the surrounding desert by the pattern of grey and tan buildings and the dark street grid. The city is bordered by an evaporating saline lake to the northeast known as Sebkhet Arina (upper left). Evaporite minerals such as halite (sodium chloride, or table salt) and gypsum produce the white deposits. They surround the darker lake center, where there is more moisture. The western urban-rural fringe is defined by a range of low hills (lower left). On the western side of these hills, dark green agricultural fields are visible.

To the southeast of the city is Lake Tunis, a lagoon that people have significantly altered from its natural state. For example, it is completely closed off from the Mediterranean Sea except for two channels, and has been since Roman times. The general lack of water circulation and input of nutrients from wastewater have altered the ecosystem, allowing reef-forming marine worms to become established; the reefs further stifle water circulation. The wastewater also causes eutrophication (overly fertile waters that trigger algae overgrowth) and occasional fish kills.
 
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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 290k
Mission: ISS017  
Roll - Frame: E - 13769
Geographical Name: TUNISIA  
Features: TUNIS METRO AREA, LAKE OF TUNIS  
Center Lat x Lon: 36.9N x 10.2E
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 10
 
Camera: N2
 
Camera Tilt: 23   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 400  
 
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: NE   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number: 3851  
 
Date: 20080819   YYYYMMDD
Time: 143346   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 35.8N  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 9.4E  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 253   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 190   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: 42   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views: COAST, DESERT, PLAIN, RANGE  
Water Views: LAGOON, LAKE, SEA  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views: URBAN AREA  
City Views: TUNIS  
Photo is not associated with any sequences


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