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  Image: Geographic Location Direction Photo #: ISS009-E-15488 Date: Jul. 2004
Geographic Region: BRAZIL
Feature: MANAUS, AMAZON NEGRO CONFLUEN

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  Solimões-Negro River Confluence at Manaus, Amazonia

The largest river on the planet, the Amazon, forms from the confluence of the Solimões (the upper Amazon River) and the Negro at the Brazilian city of Manaus in central Amazonas. At the river conjunction, the muddy, tan-colored waters of the Solimões meet the “black” water of the Negro River. The unique mixing zone where the waters meet extends downstream through the rainforest for hundreds of kilometers, and is a famous attraction for tourists from all over the world. The tourism contributes to substantial growth in the city of Manaus. Twenty years ago the large park near the city center (center) lay on the eastern outskirts of Manaus.

It is the vast quantity of sediment eroded from the Andes Mountains that gives the Solimões its tan color. By comparison, water in the Negro derives from the low jungles where reduced physical erosion of rock precludes mud entering the river. In place of sediment, organic matter from the forest floor stains the river the color of black tea.

The Solimões provides nutrient-rich mud to lakes on the floodplain (lower right). The ecology of muddy lakes differs correspondingly from that of nutrient-poor, blackwater rivers and lakes. Solimões water can be seen leaking into the Negro west of the main meeting zone (lower left). The Solimões is much shallower than the Negro because it has filled its valley and bed with great quantities of sediment since the valleys were excavated. Indeed, widths of the rivers differ for this reason (the Negro River is almost 20 km wide in the top left corner).

 
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Images: All Available Images Low-Resolution 241k
Mission: ISS009  
Roll - Frame: E - 15488
Geographical Name: BRAZIL  
Features: MANAUS, AMAZON NEGRO CONFLUEN  
Center Lat x Lon: 3S x 60W
Film Exposure:   N=Normal exposure, U=Under exposed, O=Over exposed, F=out of Focus
Percentage of Cloud Cover-CLDP: 25
 
Camera: E4
 
Camera Tilt: 24   LO=Low Oblique, HO=High Oblique, NV=Near Vertical
Camera Focal Length: 180  
 
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: W   The direction from the nadir to the center point, N=North, S=South, E=East, W=West
Stereo?:   Y=Yes there is an adjacent picture of the same area, N=No there isn't
Orbit Number: 358  
 
Date: 20040720   YYYYMMDD
Time: 180740   GMT HHMMSS
Nadir Lat: 3S  
Latitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Nadir Lon: 58.6W  
Longitude of suborbital point of spacecraft
Sun Azimuth: 308   Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point
Space Craft Altitude: 192   nautical miles
Sun Elevation: 51   Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point
Land Views: EROSION, FOREST, VALLEY  
Water Views: RIVER, SEDIMENT  
Atmosphere Views:  
Man Made Views:  
City Views: MANAUS  
Photo is not associated with any sequences


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