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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: STS41D Roll: 40 Frame: 22 Mission ID on the Film or image: S84 14
Country or Geographic Name: BRAZIL
Center Point Latitude: Center Point Longitude: (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: No (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: High Oblique
Camera Focal Length: 50mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 6017 : Kodak Ektachrome 64, 220 Roll Format.
QualityFilm Exposure: Normal
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 100 (76-100)
NadirGMT Date: 19840831 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 175204 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -8.3, Longitude: -60.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction:
Sun Azimuth: 117 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 163 nautical miles (302 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 57 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 20
CaptionsSTS41D-40-22 Fires and Smoke, Rondônia, Brazil September 1984
Space Shuttle astronauts sometimes photograph major smoke palls (primarily in the equatorial belt) where "slash-and-burn" techniques are used to clear land for agricultural purposes—for raising crops or for developing pastureland for cattle. This photograph documents numerous smoke plumes, which represent destruction of part of the Amazon rain forest in the State of Rondônia in western Brazil. During the last several decades, worldwide slash-and-burn practices have been exacerbated by population pressures to expand into virgin tropical woodland. Peak burning periods occur during the dry season, which for this Southern Hemisphere region is June through September. Visible near the horizon are the Andes Mountains of Bolivia, which provide a natural barrier so that little dense smoke reaches the altiplano of southern Peru and Bolivia; only valleys and canyons along the eastern slopes of the Andes are impacted by this periodic, widespread burning.
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