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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record

STS41D-40-22

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Images

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View STS41D-40-22.JPG 24407640480 No No ISD 1
View STS41D-40-22.JPG 73865639639 No No Earth From Space collection
View STS41D-40-22_2.JPG 237835540540 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS41D-40-22.JPG 58029244404600 No No From ISD TIFF images
View STS41D-40-22_2.JPG 89919910001000 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS41D-40-22.JPG 703923652665266 No No Earth From Space collection
View STS41D-40-22.TIF 4801514840004000 No No NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS41D-40-22.BMP 485478691700 Yes No

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Electronic Image Data

Camera files only apply to electronic still cameras.
No sound file available.

Identification

Mission: STS41D Roll: 40 Frame: 22 Mission ID on the Film or image: S84 14
Country or Geographic Name: BRAZIL
Features: CLOUDS
Center Point: Latitude: Longitude: (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: No (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:

Camera

Camera Tilt: High Oblique
Camera Focal Length: 50mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 6017 : Kodak Ektachrome 64, 220 Roll Format.

Quality

Film Exposure: Normal
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 100 (76-100)

Nadir

GMT Date: 19840831 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 175204 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -8.3, Longitude: -60.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction:
Sun Azimuth: 117 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 163 nautical miles (302 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 57 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 20

Captions

STS41D-40-22 Fires and Smoke, Rondônia, Brazil September 1984
Space Shuttle astronauts sometimes photograph major smoke palls (primarily in the equatorial belt) where "slash-and-burn" techniques are used to clear land for agricultural purposes—for raising crops or for developing pastureland for cattle. This photograph documents numerous smoke plumes, which represent destruction of part of the Amazon rain forest in the State of Rondônia in western Brazil. During the last several decades, worldwide slash-and-burn practices have been exacerbated by population pressures to expand into virgin tropical woodland. Peak burning periods occur during the dry season, which for this Southern Hemisphere region is June through September. Visible near the horizon are the Andes Mountains of Bolivia, which provide a natural barrier so that little dense smoke reaches the altiplano of southern Peru and Bolivia; only valleys and canyons along the eastern slopes of the Andes are impacted by this periodic, widespread burning.

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