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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record

STS108-711-25

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View STS108-711-25.JPG 29503515512 No No From ISD Photo CDs
View STS108-711-25.JPG 10282410311024 No No From ISD Photo CDs
View STS108-711-25.JPG 104332540540 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS108-711-25_2.JPG 32675120632048 No No From ISD Photo CDs
View STS108-711-25_3.JPG 92313341274096 No No From ISD Photo CDs
View STS108-711-25.JPG 174481512341264 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS108-711-25_2.JPG 205437400400 Yes Photographic Highlights
View STS108-711-25.JPG 174481512341264 No No Photographic Highlights
View STS108-711-25_2.TIF 300149612801248 No No
View STS108-711-25.TIF 363441012881282 No No

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Electronic Image Data

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Identification

Mission: STS108 Roll: 711 Frame: 25 Mission ID on the Film or image: STS108
Country or Geographic Name: MOROCCO
Features: ANTI ATLAS MOUNTAINS
Center Point: Latitude: 29.0 Longitude: -9.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:

Camera

Camera Tilt: 46
Camera Focal Length: 110mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 5069 : Kodak Elite 100S, E6 Reversal, Replaces Lumiere, Warmer in tone vs. Lumiere.

Quality

Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)

Nadir

GMT Date: 20011215 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 133559 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 25.6, Longitude: -10.1 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: North
Sun Azimuth: 198 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 207 nautical miles (383 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 39 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 152

Captions

The Anti-Atlas Mountains of northern Africa and the nearby Atlas mountains were created by the prolonged collision of the African and Eurasian tectonic plates, beginning about 80 million years ago. Massive sandstone and limestone layers have been crumpled and uplifted more than 4,000 meters in the High Atlas and to lower elevations in the Anti-Atlas. Between more continuous major fold structures, such as the Jbel Ouarkziz in the southwestern Anti-Atlas, tighter secondary folds (arrow) have developed.

Earlier, the supercontinent of Pangea rifted apart to form precursors to the Mediterranean and the Atlantic Ocean (Beauchamp and others, 1996). In those seas sands, clays, limey sediments, and evaporite layers (gypsum, rock salt) were deposited. Later, during the mountain-building plate collision, the gypsum layers flowed under the pressure and provided a slippery surface on which overlying rigid rocks could glide (Burkhard, 2001). The broad, open style of folds seen in this view is common where evaporites are involved in the deformation. Other examples can be found in the Southern Zagros of Iran and the Sierra Madre Oriental of Mexico.

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