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(NASA Crew Earth Observations)

Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record


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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View STS104-710-60.JPG 42391515512 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS104-710-60.JPG 100321540540 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS104-710-60.JPG 14893010311024 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS104-710-60_2.JPG 47458720672048 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS104-710-60.JPG 59642710191021 No No NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS104-710-60_3.JPG 126816241354096 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS104-710-60_2.JPG 184020400400 Yes Yes Photographic Highlights
View STS104-710-60.JPG 59642710191021 No Yes Photographic Highlights
View STS104-710-60.TIF 426218612951257 No No

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Mission: STS104 Roll: 710 Frame: 60 Mission ID on the Film or image: STS104
Country or Geographic Name: ITALY
Center Point: Latitude: 41.0 Longitude: 15.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 19
Camera Focal Length: 250mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 5069 : Kodak Elite 100S, E6 Reversal, Replaces Lumiere, Warmer in tone vs. Lumiere.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20010723 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 054256 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 42.0, Longitude: 14.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southeast
Sun Azimuth: 80 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 210 nautical miles (389 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 19 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 171


For more than 240 million years the region now known as Italy has been the scene of episodic volcanic activity. East-southeast of Napoli (Naples) stands the imposing cone of Vesuvius, which erupted explosively in 79 A.D. to bury Pompeii and Herculaneum. More recently, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-104 captured this view, Mt. Etna (Sicily, not seen in this image, but photographed the day before) was spewing ash and gas thousands of meters into the air, some of which can be seen as a brownish smear over Isola dí Ischia and the Tyrrhenian Sea.

The Appenine ranges extend from northern Italy, down the boot of the peninsula and westward into Sicily. This photograph of the Appenino Napoletano is part of an 18-frame stereophoto mapping strip that spans the entire mountain chain. The almost 1200-km-long belt of volcanoes and folded/faulted mountains is a result of the ongoing collision of Africa and Eurasia, accompanied by the progressive closing of the Mediterranean Sea. Using overlapping pairs of stereophotos, and a special viewer, scientists can get a three-dimensional perspective on the ranges that surpasses any image viewed alone.

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