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(NASA Crew Earth Observations)

Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record


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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View STS102-708-10.JPG 32101515512 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS102-708-10.JPG 8345210311024 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS102-708-10.JPG 115790540437 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS102-708-10_2.JPG 20730820632048 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS102-708-10_3.JPG 53111241274096 No No From ISD PhotoCDs
View STS102-708-10.JPG 238992112861280 NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS102-708-10_2.JPG 232314400398 No Photographic Highlights
View STS102-708-10.JPG 238992112861280 No NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS102-708-10.TIF 442431012861280 No No

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Mission: STS102 Roll: 708 Frame: 10 Mission ID on the Film or image: STS102
Country or Geographic Name: ISRAEL
Center Point: Latitude: 31.0 Longitude: 35.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 26
Camera Focal Length: 250mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 5069 : Kodak Elite 100S, E6 Reversal, Replaces Lumiere, Warmer in tone vs. Lumiere.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 25 (11-25)


GMT Date: 20010309 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 120225 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 31.6, Longitude: 34.6 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southeast
Sun Azimuth: 227 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 131 nautical miles (243 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 43 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 17


Salt Evaporation Ponds, Dead Sea

The complex of Jordanian salt evaporation ponds at the southern end of the Dead Sea has expanded significantly over the past dozen years. The western margin of the salt ponds marks the Jordan-Israel border. In August 1989, when the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS28 photographed the region, the northern extension did not exist and the large polygonal ponds in the northwestern and northeastern sectors had not been subdivided. In the view taken by the STS102 crew in March 2001, one can see that there has also been expansion at the southeastern end, and that levees now segment the northeastern wedge into four ponds.

Both sodium chloride and potassium salts are produced from the Dead Sea ponds. Salt-evaporation works are expanding throughout the world in response to increased manufacture of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and other chemicals, for which salt is a principal feedstock. About 22.4 million metric tons of salt ( sodium chloride) were consumed by the chemical industry in 1996. Other uses are in human and animal nutrition, water conditioning, and road de-icing.

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