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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: STS097 Roll: 701 Frame: 17 Mission ID on the Film or image: STS97
Country or Geographic Name: TANZANIA
Features: MT. KILIMANJARO
Center Point: Latitude: -3.0 Longitude: 37.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 20
Camera Focal Length: 250mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 5069 : Kodak Elite 100S, E6 Reversal, Replaces Lumiere, Warmer in tone vs. Lumiere.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 50 (26-50)
GMT Date: 20001202 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 051311 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -2.1, Longitude: 38.2 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 114 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 190 nautical miles (352 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 28 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 18
CaptionsSTS097-701-17 Kilimanjaro, Tanzania
Kilimanjaro (elevation 5875 m) is a complex of three volcanic peaks in the Kenya branch of the East African rift, just south of the Kenya-Tanzania border. Rift volcanism in this region includes fissure and fault eruptions along the floor of the rift, but the largest volcanoes are at intersections of north-trending rift-valley faults and the ancient, northwest-trending Aswa fault zone. Volcanoes at such intersections are commonly long-lived; Kilimanjaro has erupted episodically for almost a million years, and Reusch crater on the Kibo summit may be only a few hundred years old, as steam and sulfur fumaroles are still active. Kilimanjaro (Kilima Njaro or "shining mountain" in Swahili)is capped by glacial relics of the last ice age. Field studies indicate that most of Kilimanjaro was once covered by much as 100 m of ice and that glaciers extended well down the mountainsides. The most extensive remaining glaciers are on the southern and southwestern flanks.
The glaciers and snow cap covered a far greater area ten years prior to the view above. Compare the photograph above with a photograph of Kilimanjaro taken in November 1990 by the Space Shuttle mission STS-38 crew.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .