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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: STS054 Roll: 86 Frame: 1 Mission ID on the Film or image: STS54
Country or Geographic Name: BRAZIL
Features: POINT BALEIA, CARAVELAS
Center Point Latitude: -17.5 Center Point Longitude: -39.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: No (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: P-28 JNC Map ID: 78
CameraCamera Tilt: 15
Camera Focal Length: 250mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 5017 : Kodak, natural color positive, Ektachrome, X Professional, ASA 64, standard base.
QualityFilm Exposure: Normal
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 5 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 19930116 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 180124 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -17.6, Longitude: -39.7 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: East
Sun Azimuth: 258 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 163 nautical miles (302 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 44 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 51
CaptionsSTS054-086-001 Caravelas, Bahia, Brazil January 1993
This rural Brazilian coastal area is designated as an Atlantic rain forest, where annual precipitation usually exceeds 80 inches (200 centimeters). The general greenness of the vegetated cover supports the classification of a humid equatorial climate with no specific dry season. Barely visible are intersecting runways of a local airport approximately 5 miles (8 kilometers) north of the small town of Caravelas, north of the larger river estuary near the center of the photograph. Eastward toward the coast are numerous ancient beach terraces (parallel, striated lines). Two highly reflective, linear features, which are probably improved highways, traverse the coastal plains and connect interior cities with this small port city. The lighter field patterns are possibly large sugarcane plantations. The vegetated floodplain of the Alcobaca River is barely visible near the northern edge of the photograph.
Cape Baleia (17.5N, 39.0W), on the north central coast of Brazil illustrates a good example of multiple coastal sand spits. Over a several thousand year time period, shifting regimes of wave and current patterns have piled up sand onto a series of beach ridges and tidal lagoons. Offshore, several prominent reefs and sandbanks can be seen paralleling the coast. The largest is the Recife da Pedra Grande (Big Rocks Reef).
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