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(NASA Crew Earth Observations)

Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record


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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View STS038-91-78.JPG 45209640480 No No ISD 1
View STS038-91-78.JPG 91260540677 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS038-91-78.JPG 190728539403 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View STS038-91-78.TIF 500022412941286 No No

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Mission: STS038 Roll: 91 Frame: 78 Mission ID on the Film or image: STS38
Country or Geographic Name: TANZANIA
Center Point: Latitude: -3.0 Longitude: 37.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: Yes (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 29
Camera Focal Length: 250mm
Camera: HB: Hasselblad
Film: 5036 : Kodak, natural color positive, Ektachrome 5036,200 Professional, ASA 200, stand.


Film Exposure: Normal
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 60 (51-75)


GMT Date: 19901119 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 075709 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -1.8, Longitude: 37.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: South
Sun Azimuth: 134 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 128 nautical miles (237 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 64 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 54


Ten years ago, glaciers covered most of the summit of Mt. Kilimanjaro. This photograph was taken in November 1990 by the Space Shuttle mission STS-38 crew.

By 2001, the glaciers had receded alarmingly, as shown by another photograph of Kilimanjaro taken by the crew of Space Shuttle mission STS-97 on December 2, 2000

Mountain glaciers are sensitive indicators of climate change, and those at tropical latitudes are particularly responsive. Mid-latitude and tropical glaciers have significantly decreased in area and volume over the past century. At the February 2001 meeting of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), researchers reported dramatic changes in the volume of ice capping the Kibo summit of Kilimanjaro. An estimated 82 percent of the icecap that crowned the mountain when it was first thoroughly surveyed in 1912 is now gone, and the ice is thinning as well by as much as a meter in one area. According to some projections, if recession continues at the present rate, the majority of the glaciers on Kilimanjaro could vanish in the next 15 years.

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