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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record

ISS038-E-36501

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS038-E-36501.JPG 80846640425 No No
View ISS038-E-36501.JPG 234632540320 Yes No NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS038-E-36501.JPG 6708641000592 No No NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS038-E-36501.JPG 173350942882848 No No
View ISS038-E-36501.JPG 250559521441424 No No NASA's Earth Observatory web site

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Electronic Image Data

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Identification

Mission: ISS038 Roll: E Frame: 36501 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS038
Country or Geographic Name: KERGUELEN ILES
Features: POSSESSION I., EAST I., ILE AUX COCHONS
Center Point: Latitude: -46.5 Longitude: 53.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:

Camera

Camera Tilt: High Oblique
Camera Focal Length: 28mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.

Quality

Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 100 (76-100)

Nadir

GMT Date: 20140128 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 124958 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -45.3, Longitude: 59.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: West
Sun Azimuth: 272 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 228 nautical miles (422 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 28 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number:

Captions

Possession Island, East Island and cloud patterns, Crozet Archipelago, Indian Ocean

This wide field-of-view image taken by astronauts in the the International Space Station, shows an east-west swath of the southwestern Indian Ocean. Two remote islands, part of the French Southern and Antarctic Lands, appear in the center of the image. Possession Island (right) and East Island (left) are both only 18 km long. A smaller island, Île aux Cochons (Pigs Island), lies 100 km to the west (far right). Each island has set up V-shaped trains of waves, like bow waves, as the air flows over the islands from the west (right to left). The bow-wave patterns are overlaid on the low regional stratus (blanket) cloud that is so common in the southern Indian Ocean at 50ᵒ South latitude.
This view was taken from more than 400 km above the sea surface and reveals relationships that could not be readily understood by someone standing on one of the islands. For example, larger and higher islands produce larger waves. So the largest are being generated by Possession Island (934 m above sea level at the highest point), and East Island, versus much smaller waves developed downwind of the tiny Île de Pingouins (340 m asl high, invisible below the cloud deck). Other patterns also can be detected. Waves in an upper layer can be seen casting shadows onto a lower layer (image lower left). In the upper half of the image the waves are making thicker and thinner zones in the clouds of the lower layer. Wave trains from Possession Island and Île aux Cochons are interacting in a cross-hatch pattern (image center).
Wave clouds generated by Île aux Cochons were captured by astronauts in 2012 in a more detailed view (taken with a 180 mm focal-length lens, compared with this wide 28 mm lens view).
All three islands in the view have been designated IBA’s (Important Bird Areas) because they are breeding sites for numerous species of seabird. Interestingly, the pigs introduced to Île aux Cochons are now eradicated to help protect the bird habitats. Introduced goats have been eradicated on Possession Island, but rats remain and prey on smaller birds, and these species now nest at higher elevations for protection.


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