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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS038-E-12569.JPG 98267640426 No No
View ISS038-E-12569.JPG 228472540359 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS038-E-12569.JPG 6448671000665 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS038-E-12569.JPG 160785542562832 No No

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Mission: ISS038 Roll: E Frame: 12569 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS038
Country or Geographic Name: ARGENTINA
Center Point: Latitude: -39.0 Longitude: -71.4 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 32
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20131206 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 124524 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -40.7, Longitude: -69.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Northwest
Sun Azimuth: 87 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 226 nautical miles (419 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 40 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number:


Sollipulli Caldera, Chile and Argentina

While active volcanoes are obvious targets of interest from the standpoint of natural hazards, there are some dormant volcanoes that nevertheless warrant concern due to their geologic history of activity. One such volcano is Sollipulli, located in central Chile near the border with Argentina in the southern Andes Mountains of South America. The volcano is located within the Parque Nacional Villarica of Chile. This astronaut photograph from the International Space Station highlights the summit (2282 meters above sea level) of the volcano and the bare slopes above the tree line. Lower elevations are covered with the green forests indicative of Southern Hemisphere summer.

The summit of the volcano is occupied by a 4 kilometer wide caldera, currently filled with a snow-covered glacier (image center). While most calderas form following violent explosive eruptions, the types of volcanic rock and deposits associated with such an event have not been found at Sollipulli. The geologic evidence does indicate explosive activity 2900 years before present, and production of lava flows approximately 700 years before present. Together with craters and scoria cones located along the outer flanks of the caldera, this history suggests that Sollipulli could experience violent eruptions again, presenting an immediate potential hazard to such towns as Melipeuco in addition to the greater region.

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