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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS036 Roll: E Frame: 7165 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS036
Country or Geographic Name: CHILE
Features: NEVADOS DE CHILLAN, VOLCANO, SNOW, GLACIAL VALLEYS
Center Point: Latitude: -36.9 Longitude: -71.4 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 28
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20130611 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 180248 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -35.6, Longitude: -69.9 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 338 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 227 nautical miles (420 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 28 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
CaptionsNevados de Chillán, Chile
This astronaut photograph from the International Space Station highlights the Nevados de Chillán, a large volcanic area located near the Chile-Argentina border. Like other historically active volcanoes in the central Andes ranges, the Nevados de Chillán were created by upwelling magma generated by eastward subduction of the dense oceanic crust of the Pacific basin beneath the less dense continental crust of South America. Rising magmas associated with this type of tectonic environment frequently erupt explosively, forming widespread ash and ignimbrite layers. They can also produce less explosive eruptions that form voluminous lava flows – layering together with explosively erupted deposits to build the classic cone-shaped edifice of a stratovolcano over geologic time.
The Nevados de Chillán includes three distinct volcanic structures, built within three overlapping calderas that extend along a north-northwest to south-southeast line. The snow-capped volcanic complex sits within the glaciated terrain of the central Andes – glacial valleys are visible at image upper left, upper right, and lower right. The northwestern end of the chain is occupied by the 3212 meter high Cerro Blanco (also known as Volcán Nevado). The 3089 meter-high Volcán Viejo (also known as Volcán Chillan) sits at the southeastern end; this volcano was active during the 17th-19th centuries. A group of lava domes known as Volcán Nuevo formed to the northwest of Volcán Viejo between 1906-1945, followed by an even younger dome complex that formed between 1973-1986 (Volcán Arrau; not indicated on the image).
The last reported volcanic activity at Nevados de Chillán took place in 2009 (according to the Smithsonian Institution’s Global Volcanism Network). Volcanic activity reports are currently available (in Spanish) from the Servicio Nacional de Geología y Minería of Chile.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .