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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS036 Roll: E Frame: 11034 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS036
Country or Geographic Name: MEXICO
Features: YUMA, SAN DIEGO, MEXICALI, SALTON SEA, COLORADO RIVER DELTA, TIJUANA
Center Point Latitude: 32.5 Center Point Longitude: -115.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 17
Camera Focal Length: 50mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20130621 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 211531 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 31.4, Longitude: -115.4 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: North
Sun Azimuth: 255 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 220 nautical miles (407 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 68 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
CaptionsSalton Trough, USA and Mexico
Note: This caption refers to the image versions labeled "NASA's Earth Observatory web site".
The Imperial and Coachella Valleys of southern California – and the corresponding Mexicali Valley and Colorado River Delta in Mexico – are part of the Salton Trough, a large geologic structure known to geologists as a graben or rift valley that extends into the Gulf of California. The trough is a geologically complex zone formed by interaction of the San Andreas transform fault system that is, broadly speaking, moving southern California towards Alaska; and the northward motion of the Gulf of California segment of the East Pacific Rise that continues to widen the Gulf of California by sea-floor spreading.
Sediments deposited by the Colorado River have been filling the northern rift valley (the Salton Trough) for the past several million years, excluding the waters of the Gulf of California and providing a fertile environment – together with irrigation—for the development of extensive agriculture in the region (visible as green and yellow-brown fields at image center). The Salton Sea, a favorite landmark of astronauts in low earth orbit, was formed by an irrigation canal rupture in 1905, and today is sustained by agricultural runoff water.
A wide array of varying landforms and land uses in the Salton Trough are visible from space. In addition to the agricultural fields and Salton Sea, easily visible metropolitan areas include Yuma, AZ (image top left); Mexicali, Baja California, Mexico(image center); and the San Diego-Tijuana conurbation on the Pacific Coast (image left). The approximately 72 kilometer long Algodones Dunefield is visible at image top right.
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