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IdentificationMission: ISS034 Roll: E Frame: 27139 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS034
Country or Geographic Name: JAPAN
Features: KYUSHU, SAKURAJIMA VOLCANO, PLUME, KAGOSHIMA BAY, KAGOSHIMA, KIRISHIMA
Center Point Latitude: 31.5 Center Point Longitude: 130.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 39
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20130110 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 054348 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 28.7, Longitude: 131.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: North
Sun Azimuth: 218 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 214 nautical miles (396 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 29 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
CaptionsSakurajima Volcano, Kyushu, Japan
This astronaut photograph taken from the International Space Station highlights Sakurajima, one of Japan’s most active volcanoes (image center). There are several eruption craters near the 1,117 meter summit of Sakurajima; Kita-dake to the north last erupted approximately 5000 years ago, while Minami-dake and Showa crater to the south have been the site of frequent eruptions since at least the 8th century. The ash plume visible near the volcano summit and extending to the southeast may have originated from either Minami-dake or Showa craters. Sakurajima began forming approximately 13,000 years ago; prior to 1914, the volcano was an island in Kagoshima Bay—it was joined to the mainland by volcanic material following a major eruption in 1914.
The image highlights the proximity of several large urban areas (Aira, Kagoshima, Kanoya, Kirishima, and Miyakonojo are readily visible) to Sakurajima. This has prompted studies of potential health hazards presented by the volcanic ash (Hillman et al. 2012), which are particularly important if more powerful explosive eruptive activity resumes at the volcano. The Tokyo Volcanic Ash Advisory Center (VAAC [link to: http://ds.data.jma.go.jp/svd/vaac/data/index.html]) of the Japan Meteorological Agency issues advisories when eruptions occur. An advisory on the activity captured in this image was issued less than one hour before the astronaut took the photograph, by which time the plume tail had encountered northeast-trending upper-level winds (image bottom center).
Reference: Hillman, S.E., Horwell, C.J., Densmore, A.L., Damby, D.E., Fubini, B., Ishimine, Y., and Tomatis, M. (2012) Sakurajima volcano: a physico-chemical study of the health consequences of long-term exposure to volcanic ash, Bulletin of Volcanology, 74:913-930 (DOI: 10.1007/s00445-012-0575-3).
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