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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS033-E-20288.JPG 135958640426 No No
View ISS033-E-20288.JPG 610678540812 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS033-E-20288.JPG 7309181440960 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS033-E-20288.JPG 149510310001503 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS033-E-20288.JPG 203196442562832 No No

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Mission: ISS033 Roll: E Frame: 20288 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS033
Country or Geographic Name: SAUDI ARABIA
Center Point: Latitude: 24.8 Longitude: 46.7 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 06
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20121113 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 013748 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 24.9, Longitude: 46.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: East
Sun Azimuth: 101 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 224 nautical miles (415 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: -21 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number:


Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, at Night

Note: This caption refers to the image versions labeled "NASA's Earth Observatory web site".

The population of Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, has risen dramatically in the last half century, from 150,000 in 1960 to an estimated 5.4 million in 2012. The city appears as a brightly colored patchwork in this night time astronaut photograph. The brightest lights, apart from those on the old Riyadh Airbase at image center (the new international airport is far outside the city and not shown here), follow the commercial districts along King Abdullah Road and King Fahd Branch Road. Many of the darker patches within the built area are city parks.

University sectors stand out with different street and light patterns, as seen in the King Saud University campus which houses the Arabic Language Institute, and the Princess Nora Bint Abdul Rahman University which is the largest all-female university in the world. Highways and various ring roads also stand out in night imagery due to bright regular lighting. Lighted developments beyond the ring roads mark the growth of the city (image lower left and lower right). Newer neighborhoods, set further from the city center, are recognizable by blue-gray lightning (ex. image right).

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