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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS031 Roll: E Frame: 143143 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS031
Country or Geographic Name: SAUDI ARABIA
Features: JUBAIL AT NIGHT, PETROCHEMICAL REFINERIES, PERSIAN GULF
Center Point Latitude: 27.1 Center Point Longitude: 49.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 23
Camera Focal Length: 200mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20120619 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 202114 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 27.7, Longitude: 50.9 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: West
Sun Azimuth: 355 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 211 nautical miles (391 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: -39 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
CaptionsISS031-E-143143 (19 June 2012) --- Al Jubayl, Saudi Arabia at night is featured in this image photographed by an Expedition 31 crew member on the International Space Station. The city of Al Jubayl (or Jubail) is located on the Saudi Arabian coastline of the Persian Gulf. The city has a history extending back more than 7,000 years, but since 1975 it has been associated with the heavy industries of petrochemical refining and production, fertilizer production and steel works. At night, these industrial areas form a brightly lit region (center) to the south of the residential and commercial center of Al Jubayl (characterized by green-gray lighting). An artificial peninsula extending into the Persian Gulf to the northeast hosts supertanker docks and petroleum storage facilities. The Persian Gulf to the north and northeast is devoid of lights; likewise, the open desert to the south-southeast provides a stark contrast to the well-lit urban and industrial areas. A bright circle of light located within the heavy industrial area (center) cannot be resolved in this photograph, but is likely a concentration of lights associated with ongoing processing or construction activities. The approximate scale of the feature - hundreds of meters in diameter - is consistent with multiple stationary light sources, particularly if the light from those sources is accentuated due to the camera's low light settings.
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