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(NASA Crew Earth Observations)

Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record


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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS030-E-90012.JPG 65190640425 No No
View ISS030-E-90012.JPG 281402540359 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS030-E-90012.JPG 7350461000664 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS030-E-90012.JPG 132413842882848 No No

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Mission: ISS030 Roll: E Frame: 90012 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS030
Country or Geographic Name: BRAZIL
Center Point: Latitude: -21.2 Longitude: -51.9 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 34
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20120205 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 121557 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -23.6, Longitude: -51.4 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: North
Sun Azimuth: 91 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 220 nautical miles (407 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 42 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number:


Paraná River Floodplain, Mato Grosso–Saő Paulo border, Brazil

The Paraná River appears as a wide, blue strip across this astronaut photograph, with muddy brown water of the smaller Verde River entering from the northwest (top left). An extensive wetland (dark green) occupies most of the left half of the image, where the floodplain of the river reaches a width of 11 kilometers. The thin line of a road crossing the floodplain also gives a sense of scale. Above the Paraná–Verde confluence (image center) the floodplain is much narrower.

The floodplain is generated by sediments delivered by both rivers. Evidence for this is that the entire surface of the floodplain is crisscrossed by the wider traces of former Paraná R. channels as well as numerous narrower traces of the Verde R. The floodplains along both rivers are bordered by numerous rectangular agricultural fields. Dominant crops along this part of the Paraná River are coffee, corn and cotton.

Turbid water, such as that in the Verde River, is common in most rivers that drain plowed agricultural land as some topsoil is washed into local rivers after rains. A long tendril of brown water extends from the Verde R. into the main channel of the Paraná River where it hugs the west bank, remaining unmixed for many kilometers. This effectively shows the direction of river flow from orbit (right to left for the Paraná, upper left to image center for the Verde).

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