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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS030 Roll: E Frame: 5456 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS030
Country or Geographic Name: CHAD
Features: EMI KOUSSI VOLCANO, AORUNGA IMPACT CRATER, YARDANGS
Center Point: Latitude: 19.5 Longitude: 18.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 21
Camera Focal Length: 48mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20111126 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 093403 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 19.6, Longitude: 19.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: West
Sun Azimuth: 161 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 205 nautical miles (380 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 48 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
CaptionsEmi Koussi Volcano and Aorounga Impact Crater, Chad
This striking astronaut photograph from the International Space Station features two examples of circular landscape features—labeled as craters—that were produced by very different geological processes. At image left, the broad grey-green shield volcano of Emi Koussi is visible. The volcano is marked by three overlapping calderas formed by eruptions; these form a large oblong depression at the 3,415 meter asl summit of the volcano. A smaller crater sits within the larger caldera depression. While volcanic activity has not been observed, nor is mentioned in the historical record, an active thermal area is located on the southern flank.
The circular Aorounga Impact Crater is located approximately 110 km to the southeast of Emi Koussi and has its origin in forces from above rather than eruptions from below. The Aorounga structure is thought to record a meteor impact approximately 345-370 million years ago. The circular feature visible at image upper right may be only one of three impact craters formed by the same event – the other two are buried by sand deposits. The linear features (image lower right) that arc around Emi Koussi and overprint Aorounga and the surrounding bedrock are known as yardangs; these are rock ridges formed by wind erosion.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .