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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS026 Roll: E Frame: 17074 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS026
Country or Geographic Name: CHAD
Features: EMI KOUSSI VOLCANO, CINDER CONES, LAVA FLOWS
Center Point: Latitude: 20.0 Longitude: 18.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 30
Camera Focal Length: 70mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20110111 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 085418 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 19.4, Longitude: 16.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: East
Sun Azimuth: 142 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 189 nautical miles (350 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 39 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1622
CaptionsEmi Koussi Volcano, Chad
Note: This caption refers to the image versions labeled "NASA's Earth Observatory web site".
The broad Emi Koussi volcano is a shield volcano located in northern Chad, at the southeastern end of the Tibesti Range. The dark volcanic rocks of the volcano provide a sharp contrast to the underlying tan and light brown sandstone exposed to the west, south, and east (image lower left, lower right, and upper right).
Emi Koussi was formed from relatively low viscosity lavas—flowing more like motor oil than toothpaste—and explosively-erupted ignimbrites that produce a characteristic low and broad structure covering a wide area (approximately 60 by 80 kilometers).
This astronaut photograph highlights the entire volcanic structure. At 3,415 meters above sea level, Emi Koussi is the highest summit of Africa's Sahara region. The summit includes three calderas formed by powerful eruptions. Two older and overlapping calderas form a depression approximately 12 kilometers by 15 kilometers in area bounded by a distinct rim (image center). The youngest and smallest caldera, Era Kohor, formed as a result of eruptive activity within the past 2 million years.
Young volcanic features, including lava flows and scoria cones are also thought to be less than 2 million years old. There are no historical records of eruptions at Emi Koussi, but there is an active thermal area on the southern flank of the volcano.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .