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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS026 Roll: E Frame: 12474 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS026
Country or Geographic Name: CANADA-Q
Features: MONTREAL AT NIGHT
Center Point Latitude: 45.5 Center Point Longitude: -73.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: High Oblique
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: N5: Nikon D3S
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20101224 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 063614 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 41.9, Longitude: -79.1 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Northeast
Sun Azimuth: 49 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 187 nautical miles (346 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: -65 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1337
CaptionsMontreal at Night
Note: This caption refers to the image versions labeled "NASA's Earth Observatory web site".
Montreal, the largest city in the mostly French-speaking Province of Quebec, is considered by some to be the cultural capital of Canada. The metropolitan area (image center) is the country’s second-largest, having been surpassed by Toronto in 1976. While the city of Montreal is located on the Island of Montreal, at the confluence of the St. Lawrence (image center) and Ottawa rivers (not visible), the city takes its name from Mont Royal, located at the city’s center. Several smaller urban areas form a loose ring around the metropolitan area: Sorel-Tracy, Saint-Hyacinthe, Saint-Jean-sur-Richelieu, Salaberry-de-Valleyfield, Saint-Jerome, and Joliette are among those that can be readily identified.
This astronaut photograph of the city lights of Montreal illustrates the extent of urbanization. Major roadways and industrial areas are traced by bright white lighting, while the adjacent residential and commercial lands are characterized by more diffuse yellow-gold lighting. Rivers and other water bodies appear black, while the surrounding countryside is faintly illuminated by moonlight. Blurry areas at image top and bottom right are caused by cloud cover.
The International Space Station was located over the Pennsylvania-New York border (near Warren, Pa.) at the time this image was taken—a ground distance of approximately 600 kilometers (370 miles) southwest of Montreal. This distance from the camera target, coupled with the oblique (inclined) viewing angle from the ISS, results in the foreshortened appearance of urban areas in the image.
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Recommended Citation: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .