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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS024-E-10162.JPG 81845640437 No No
View ISS024-E-10162.JPG 278587540372 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS024-E-10162.JPG 8093151000689 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS024-E-10162.JPG 119884842882929 No No

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Mission: ISS024 Roll: E Frame: 10162 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS024
Country or Geographic Name: TURKEY
Center Point: Latitude: 40.8 Longitude: 29.9 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 32
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20100731 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 104722 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 41.9, Longitude: 28.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southeast
Sun Azimuth: 200 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 187 nautical miles (346 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 65 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 3043


Gulf of Izmit, Turkey

One of the most industrialized areas of Turkey lies at the eastern edge of the Sea of Marmara, at the end of the Gulf of Izmit. The long, narrow waterway provides ship access to the cities of Izmit and Gölcük. This astronaut photograph highlights the metropolitan area of Izmit along the northern and eastern shores. Commercial and industrial centers—including petroleum refineries and automobile factories—are recognizable by large structures with white rooftops. The city of Izmit, then known as Nicomedia, was part of the Roman Empire and served as its easternmost capital before Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) assumed that role in 330 AD. Izmit is located approximately 83 kilometers (52 miles) to the east-southeast of Istanbul.

The smaller city of Gölcük on the southern shoreline of the Gulf is the location of a Turkish naval facility and another automobile factory. Both urban areas are built primarily on flat lowlands adjacent to the Gulf, with green vegetation marking highland areas to the north of Izmit and south of Gölcük. Both the Izmit and Gölcük areas were severely damaged by a magnitude-7.4 earthquake on August 17, 1999, that resulted in over 17,000 fatalities. The earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian strike-slip fault that extends roughly east-west beneath the Gulf of Izmit.

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