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(NASA Crew Earth Observations)

Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record


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View ISS021-E-8371.JPG 77381640437 No No
View ISS021-E-8371.JPG 74487430722098 No No

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Mission: ISS021 Roll: E Frame: 8371 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS021
Country or Geographic Name: PERU
Center Point: Latitude: -16.4 Longitude: -71.6 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 9
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20091016 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 184531 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -16.1, Longitude: -71.2 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 278 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 185 nautical miles (343 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 56 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 2510


El Misti Volcano and Arequipa, Peru

Several Latin American cities have grown up on the flanks of active volcanoes. This astronaut photograph illustrates the proximity of the 5822 meter-high El Misti volcano (image left) to the city of Arequipa, Peru (image center). The symmetric conical shape of El Misti is typical of a stratovolcano – a type of volcano characterized by interlayered lavas and products of explosive eruptions, such as ash and pyroclastic flow deposits. Stratovolcanoes are usually located on the continental crust above a subducting tectonic plate. Magma feeding the stratovolcanoes of the Andes Mountains - including El Misti – is associated with ongoing subduction of the Nazca Plate beneath the South American Plate. El Misti’s most recent - and relatively minor - eruption occurred in 1985.

The city center of Arequipa, Peru lies only 17 km away from the summit of El Misti; the gray urban area is bordered by green agricultural fields (image center). With almost 1 million residents in 2009, it is the second city of Peru in terms of population. Much of the building stone for Arequipa, known locally as sillar, is quarried from nearby pyroclastic flow deposits that are white in color. Arequipa is known as “the White City” because of the prevalence of this building material. The Chili River extends northeastwards from the city center, and flows through a canyon (image left) between El Misti volcano and Nevado Chachani to the north. Nevado Chachani is a volcanic complex that may have erupted during the Holocene Epoch (approximately 10,000 years ago to the present time) but no historical eruptions have been observed.

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