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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS021 Roll: E Frame: 23475 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS021
Country or Geographic Name: EL SALVADOR
Features: LLOPANGO, LAKE, R. JIBOA, FOREST, MTS., AGR.
Center Point: Latitude: 13.7 Longitude: -89.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 11
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20091111 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 210834 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 14.2, Longitude: -88.7 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 240 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 182 nautical miles (337 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 29 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 2922
CaptionsLake Ilopango, El Salvador
The Central American country of El Salvador occupies a land area nearly the same size as the U.S. State of Massachusetts, and it includes numerous historically active volcanoes. This detailed astronaut photograph highlights the Ilopango Caldera that is located approximately 16 kilometers to the east of the capital city, San Salvador. Calderas are the geologic record of powerful volcanic eruptions that empty out a volcano’s magma chamber; following the eruption, the overlying volcanic structure collapses into the newly formed void, leaving a large crater-like feature (the caldera).
The last caldera-forming eruption at Ilopango occurred during the fifth century AD; it was a powerful event that produced pyroclastic flows that destroyed early Mayan cities in the region. Later volcanic activity included the formation of several lava domes within the lake-filled caldera and near the shoreline. The only historical eruption at Ilopango took place in 1879-80. This activity resulted in the formation of a lava dome in the center of Lake Ilopango. The summit of the dome forms small islets known as Islas Quemadas (visible as small white dots in the larger image). The city of Ilopango borders the lake to the west (image left), while green, vegetated hills ring the rest of the shoreline. White, patchy cumulus clouds are also visible in the image (center and upper left).
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .