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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS020 Roll: E Frame: 39083 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS020
Country or Geographic Name: CHILE
Features: ICE FLOES, FJORDS, PENGUIN GLACIER
Center Point Latitude: -50.0 Center Point Longitude: -74.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 11
Camera Focal Length: 800mm
Camera: N3: Nikon D3
Film: 4256E : 4256 x 2832 pixel CMOS sensor, 36.0mm x 23.9mm, total pixels: 12.87 million, Nikon FX format.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20090906 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 175235 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -49.6, Longitude: -73.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 342 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 192 nautical miles (356 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 33 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1879
CaptionsGlacier Outlet, Southern Patagonian Ice Field, Chile
The Southern Patagonian Ice Field of Chile and Argentina hosts a spectacular array of glaciers and associated glacial features within the southern Andes Mountains. Glaciers flowing downhill on the eastern side of the mountains have outlets into several large freshwater lakes. On the western side of the mountains, glaciers release ice into the Pacific Ocean via an intricate network of fjords. Fjords are steep valleys originally cut by glaciers during periods of lower sea level that are now inundated. As glaciers flow into the fjord, ice at the front of the glacier begins to break off and form icebergs that can float out to sea—a process known as calving.
This detailed astronaut photograph shows the merged outlet of Penguin Glacier and HPS 19 into a fjord carved into the snow-covered mountains of the southern Andes. The designation HPS stands for Hielo Patagónico Sur (Southern Patagonian Icefield) and is used to identify glaciers that have no other geographic name. Ice flowing into the fjord begins to break up at image center, forming numerous icebergs. The largest visible in this image is approximately 2 kilometers in width. The large ice masses visible at image center have a coarse granular appearance due to variable snow cover, and mixing and refreezing of ice fragments prior to floating free.
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