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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS019 Roll: E Frame: 11922 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS019
Country or Geographic Name: USA-HAWAII
Features: HAWAII ISLAND, MAUNA KEA VOLCANCO, CINDER CONES
Center Point: Latitude: 19.8 Longitude: -155.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 18
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20090428 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 200304 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 20.3, Longitude: -154.6 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 95 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 191 nautical miles (354 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 58 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 3818
The island of Hawaii is home to four volcanoes monitored by volcanologists: Mauna Loa, Hualalai, Kilauea, and Mauna Kea. Mauna Kea is depicted in this astronaut photograph; of the four volcanoes, it is the only one that has not erupted during historical times. The Hawaiian Islands chain, together with the submerged Emperor chain to the northwest, forms an extended line of volcanic islands and seamounts that is thought to record passage of the Pacific Plate over a hotspot (or thermal plume) in the Earth’s mantle. Areas of active volcanism in the southern Hawaiian Islands today mark the general location of the hotspot.
This detailed astronaut photograph illustrates why the volcano is called Mauna Kea (white mountain in Hawaiian). While the neighboring Mauna Loa volcano is a classic shield volcano comprised of dark basaltic lava flows, Mauna Kea experienced more explosive activity during its last eruptive phase. This covered its basalt lava flows with pyroclastic deposits. In addition, former glaciers at the summit of the volcano left till deposits—sediments deposited directly in place as the glacial ice melted. The majority of these deposits are visible as light brown areas to the north and southeast of the white snow at image center. Numerous small red to dark gray cinder cones are another distinctive feature of Mauna Kea. The cinder cones represent the most recent type of volcanic activity at the volcano.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .