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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS018 Roll: E Frame: 15908 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS018
Country or Geographic Name: CROATIA
Features: SVETI JURE, BIOKOVO RA., COAST
Center Point: Latitude: 43.5 Longitude: 17.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 46
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20081229 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 074149 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 43.8, Longitude: 13.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: East
Sun Azimuth: 134 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 185 nautical miles (343 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 8 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1925
CaptionsBiokovo Range, Croatia
The Biokovo Range in Croatia is part of the Dinaric Alps that extend northwest-southeast along the coastline of the Adriatic Sea. The range itself is the location of a national park; the nearby city of Makarska, located between the mountains and the sea, is a popular tourist destination. The highest peak in the range is Sveti Jure (1,762 meters above sea level). The Biokovo Range is comprised mainly of Mesozoic-age carbonate rocks, primarily limestone, that were deposited in relatively warm, shallow waters. Later tectonic processes uplifted and exposed the carbonate rocks to erosion, leading to a distinctive geological surface known as karst topography.
Karst topography occurs when naturally occurring acids in surface and ground water dissolve the carbonate rocks. As the rock dissolves, underground networks of drainages and caves form. As more empty space develops underground, the overlaying rock and soil collapse to form a variety of landforms including sinkholes, blind valleys, and towers. In the Biokovo Range, much of the karst surface has a pitted appearance, easily visible in the early morning light in this astronaut photograph. The pitted appearance is produced by numerous circular or semi-circular collapse valleys known locally as vrtace. While this image captures Sveti Jure covered with snow, there are no glaciers or ice fields in the Biokovo Range.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .