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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS018 Roll: E Frame: 11174 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS018
Country or Geographic Name: CANADA-O
Features: THUNDER BAY, SNOW
Center Point Latitude: 48.4 Center Point Longitude: -89.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 25
Camera Focal Length: 800mm
Camera: N2: Nikon D2Xs
Film: 4288E : 4288 x 2848 pixel CMOS sensor, RGBG imager color filter.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20081206 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 191959 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 49.3, Longitude: -88.2 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 203 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 185 nautical miles (343 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 15 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1569
CaptionsCity of Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada
Located on the shores of Lake Superior (regional view), the metropolitan area of Thunder Bay is one of the largest in the Province of Ontario. It is also the major port providing access to the Great Lakes for central Canada’s grain products. The city of Thunder Bay is relatively new; it was incorporated in 1970 by combining the cities of Fort William (shown in this astronaut photograph) and Port Arthur with the townships of Neebing and McIntyre. While the spread of separate municipalities into a larger contiguous metropolitan area is common (urban geographers call the process agglomeration), it is less common for distinct cities to merge into a new political entity.
This detailed astronaut photograph is centered on the older city of Fort William, in the southern portion of Thunder Bay. Winter snows outline the street grid of the city, while parks appear as roughly rectangular areas of unbroken white snow. Built materials (buildings, streets) appear light gray, while vegetated areas and the rock outcrop near Mount McKay are dark green to dark gray. The Kam River to the south of Fort William is ice-covered, and has an even covering of snow that traces the river channel.
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