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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS016-E-8436.JPG 98875639435 No No
View ISS016-E-8436.JPG 355324540391 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS016-E-8436.JPG 11330401000724 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS016-E-8436.JPG 176681130322064 No No

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Mission: ISS016 Roll: E Frame: 8436 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS016
Country or Geographic Name: LEBANON
Center Point: Latitude: 33.9 Longitude: 35.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 50
Camera Focal Length: 800mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20071026 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 072324 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 36.5, Longitude: 38.1 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southwest
Sun Azimuth: 147 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 182 nautical miles (337 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 35 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 3146


Beirut Metropolitan Area, Lebanon

The capital of Lebanon, Beirut, is located along the southeastern shoreline of the Mediterranean Sea. The metropolitan area is built on a small peninsula composed mainly of sedimentary rock deposited over the past 100 million years or so. The growth of the city eastwards is bounded by foothills of the more mountainous interior of Lebanon (image upper right). While this sedimentary platform is stable, the country of Lebanon is located along a major transform fault zone. Transform faults are places where tectonic plates are moving against each other laterally, in this case the African Plate on the west and the Arabian Plate to the east. This tectonic activity creates an earthquake hazard for the country. The Roum Fault, one of the fault strands that is part of the transform boundary, is located directly to the south of the Beirut metropolitan area.

The Beirut area has a long human history. It has been an urban center for the past 5,000 years. Throughout much of that time, the region has been the focus of both military and economic conflicts among neighboring city-states. Conflict between Lebanon and Israel in 2006 resulted in environmental damage from an oil spill that affected local beaches. Beach contamination from the oil spill is not visible in this astronaut photograph taken in 2007. Other distinctive features visible in this astronaut photograph include the Rafic Hariri Airport at image lower right, the city sports arena at image center, and several areas of green and open space, including a large golf course at image center. Also visible in the image are several plumes of sediment along the coastline; the most striking plumes are near the airport. The general lack of vegetation in the airport may allow more soil transport by surface water runoff or wind.

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