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IdentificationMission: ISS016 Roll: E Frame: 31056 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS016
Country or Geographic Name: MEXICO
Features: CANANEA, AGUAJE, COPPER MINE
Center Point Latitude: 31.0 Center Point Longitude: -110.2 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 25
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20080303 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 195645 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 32.0, Longitude: -111.2 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southeast
Sun Azimuth: 188 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 182 nautical miles (337 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 51 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1190
CaptionsCananea Copper Mine, Sonora, Mexico
One of the largest open-pit copper mines in the world, the Cananea mine produced over 164,000 tonnes of copper in 2006. The mine is located approximately 40 km south of the border between the USA (Arizona) and Mexico (Sonora). Copper and gold ores at Cananea are found in a porphyry copper deposit, a geological structure formed by crystal-rich magma moving upwards through pre-existing rock layers. A porphyry - an igneous rock with large crystals in a fine-grained matrix – is formed as the magma cools and crystallizes. While crystallization is occurring, hot fluids can circulate through the magma and surrounding rocks via fractures. This hydrothermal alteration of the rocks typically forms copper-bearing and other minerals. Much of the Cananea mine’s ore is concentrated in breccia pipes – mineralized rod or chimney-shaped bodies that contain broken rock fragments.
The active, 2 km in diameter Colorada Pit (image top right) is recognizable in this astronaut photograph by the concentric steps or benches cut around its perimeter (see larger image). These benches allow for access into the pit for extraction of ore and waste materials. Water (black) is visible filling the bottom of the pit, and several other basins in the surrounding area. The city of Cananea – marked by its street grid - is located to the northeast of the mine workings. A leachate reservoir is located to the east of the mine (image lower left) for removal and evaporation of water pumped from the mine workings – the bluish-white coloration of deposits near the reservoir suggests the high mineral content of the leachate.
The mine workings at Cananea are significant in the recent history of Mexico, as poor working conditions there in 1906 led to a miner’s strike that resulted in 19 deaths. This event is generally considered to a major catalyst of the Mexican Revolution of 1910, as well as the beginning of Mexico’s labor movement. Current environmental and economic conditions at the mine led to a worker strike that halted mine operations in 2007.
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