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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record

ISS016-E-30337

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS016-E-30337.JPG 87789639435 No No
View ISS016-E-30337.JPG 274766540357 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS016-E-30337.JPG 8356931000661 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS016-E-30337.JPG 128030630322064 No No

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Electronic Image Data

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Identification

Mission: ISS016 Roll: E Frame: 30337 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS016
Country or Geographic Name: ITALY
Features: FUCINE LAKE PLAIN, AGR., TOWNS
Center Point: Latitude: 42.0 Longitude: 13.6 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:

Camera

Camera Tilt: 53
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.

Quality

Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)

Nadir

GMT Date: 20080226 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 131354 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 43.2, Longitude: 9.9 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: East
Sun Azimuth: 210 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 177 nautical miles (328 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 33 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1091

Captions

Lake Fucine, Italy

The light tan oval in this image is the floor of a lake in central Italy that has been drained by a tunnel dug through the surrounding hills. Numerous rectangular fields occupy the former lake bottom—now one of the most fertile regions of Italy. The area is still referred to as “Fucine Lake,” even though the lake has been dry for nearly 150 years.

The town of Avezzano (top right), near the drainage outlet of the basin, lies 80 kilometers east of Rome. The “circumference road” runs around the edge of the former lake; it roughly follows the boundary between green, vegetated fields around the basin and tan fallow fields within. This recent astronaut photograph shows a dusting of snow along mountain ridges to the south (upper and lower left).

The basin of Fucine Lake has no natural outlet. Consequently the level of the original lake fluctuated widely with any higher-than-average rainfall. In Roman times, this variability caused flooding of the fishing communities around the lake. (Some of these towns, with their distinctive red tile roofs, are located around the margin of the lake floor.) Emperors Claudius and Hadrian achieved limited draining of the original lake—to control both flooding and malaria—by digging and then expanding a tunnel through the hills near Avezzano at the top of the image. Claudius used 30,000 workers over a span of ten years to dig the 5.6-kilometer-long tunnel. This engineering work reduced the size of the lake from an original area of about 140 square kilometers to about 57 square kilometers.

After the Roman Empire collapsed and maintenance failed, the tunnel was blocked up with vegetation and sediment. An earthquake—possibly the same event that damaged the Coliseum, somewhat before 508 CE—dropped the lake bottom by 30-35 centimeters. Drainage slowed, and the lake expanded; water filled the basin for the next 1,000 years. A serious draining effort was commissioned by Prince Alessandro Torlonia in 1862. That effort achieved complete emptying of the lake, giving it the modern appearance.

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