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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

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ISS016-E-18385

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS016-E-18385.JPG 70908639435 No No
View ISS016-E-18385.JPG 259193540379 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS016-E-18385.JPG 7254441000702 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS016-E-18385.JPG 110997930322064 No No

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Electronic Image Data

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Identification

Mission: ISS016 Roll: E Frame: 18385 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS016
Country or Geographic Name: PUERTO RICO
Features: LUQUILLO, LUQUILLO MOUNTAINS
Center Point: Latitude: 18.3 Longitude: -65.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:

Camera

Camera Tilt: 33
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.

Quality

Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)

Nadir

GMT Date: 20071223 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 131337 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 18.1, Longitude: -67.7 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: East
Sun Azimuth: 129 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 180 nautical miles (333 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 27 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 65

Captions

Luquillo Mountains, Puerto Rico

The Luquillo Mountains are located in the northeastern portion of Puerto Rico, and they rise to elevations of 1,075 meters (about 3,527 feet). The mountains are mainly made up of volcanic rock that was uplifted by tectonic activity between approximately 37–28 million years ago. (Puerto Rico is located between the junction of the North American and Caribbean tectonic plates.) Prevailing easterly winds bring moisture from the Caribbean Sea, which becomes precipitation as the winds cross the mountains. Higher elevations receive more rainfall than lower elevations, leading to subtropical forest types in the lowlands and high-mountain forest types near the summits. This astronaut photograph, taken during the rainy season, illustrates the rich vegetation on the mountains.

The rapid transition between ecosystems based on elevation, along with land use history and exposure to frequent natural disturbances such as hurricanes, makes the Luquillo Mountains an ideal location for ecological study. The Luquillo Experimental Forest Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site is contained within the Luquillo National Forest, covering much of the mountains to the southwest of the city of Luquillo (lower left). Past human activities, including logging, agriculture, charcoal production, and coffee plantations, have determined much of the current ecosystem structure. Results of research at Luquillo Forest indicate that the island’s forest ecosystems recover more rapidly from natural disturbances (like hurricanes) than they do from human disturbance.

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