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Photographing the Earth from the International Space Station

Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record

ISS012-E-6456

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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS012-E-6456.JPG 78480639435 No No
View ISS012-E-6456.JPG 181110540357 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS012-E-6456.JPG 5085461000661 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS012-E-6456.JPG 71757430322008 No No Not enhancedConverted to JPEG from a raw image

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Electronic Image Data

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Identification

Mission: ISS012 Roll: E Frame: 6456 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS012
Country or Geographic Name: BOLIVIA
Features: SALAR DE UYUNI, TAHUA
Center Point: Latitude: -20.0 Longitude: -67.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:

Camera

Camera Tilt: 48
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.

Quality

Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)

Nadir

GMT Date: 20051103 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 181305 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -22.6, Longitude: -69.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Northeast
Sun Azimuth: 281 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 189 nautical miles (350 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 63 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 3764

Captions

Salar de Uyuni, Bolivia

The largest salar (salt flat) in the world, Salar de Uyuni, is located within the Altiplano of Bolivia in South America. The Altiplano is a high plateau formed during uplift of the Andes Mountains. The plateau harbors fresh and saltwater lakes, together with salars, that are surrounded by mountains with no drainage outlets—all at elevations greater than 3,659 meters (12,000 feet) above mean sea level. The Salar de Uyuni covers approximately 8,000 square kilometers (3,100 square miles), and it is a major transport route across the Bolivian Altiplano due to its flatness.

This astronaut photograph features the northern end of the salar and the dormant volcano Mount Tunupa (image center). This mountain is high enough to support a summit glacier, and enough rain falls on the windward slopes to provide water for small communities along the base. The dark volcanic rocks comprising Mt. Tunupa are in sharp contrast with the white, mineral-crusted surface of the salar. The major minerals are halite—common table salt—and gypsum—a common component of drywall.

Relict shorelines visible in the surface salt deposits (lower right of the image) attest to the occasional presence of small amounts of water in the salar. Sediments in the salar basin record fluctuations in water levels that occurred as the lake that once occupied the salar evaporated. These sediments provide a valuable paleoclimate record for the region. The dynamic geological history of the Altiplano is recorded in isolated “islands” within the salt flat (image left); these islands are typically built from fossil coral reefs covered by Andean volcanic rocks.


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