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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
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Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS012 Roll: E Frame: 11779 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS012
Country or Geographic Name: VENEZUELA
Features: RIO ORINOCO, CIUDAD GUAYANA
Center Point: Latitude: 8.4 Longitude: -62.6 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 46
Camera Focal Length: 400mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 25 (11-25)
GMT Date: 20051208 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 161153 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 7.2, Longitude: -59.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: West
Sun Azimuth: 190 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 192 nautical miles (356 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 60 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 314
CaptionsCiudad Guayana, Venezuela
Ciudad Guayana lies on the south bank of the Orinoco River, the second largest in South America, at its confluence with the Caroní River (lower left). Islands have developed in the Orinoco in a wide spot opposite the city (upper left). Guayana is one of the newest cities in Venezuela, constructed in 1961 as a new economic center for the interior of Venezuela, especially for major industries such as iron, steel, and aluminum. The city stretches 40 kilometers along the south bank of the Orinoco. With approximately 800,000 people, it is one of Venezuela’s largest urban populations.
A low barrage (lower left) dams the Caroní as a water supply for the city. The Orinoco River is a muddy brown, carrying sediment produced by erosion of the Andes Mountains far to the southwest. By contrast, the Caroní is clear blue, as it drains the ancient landscapes of the Guyana Highlands, where erosion is much slower. As at the famous confluence of the muddy Amazon and clear Negro rivers in Amazonia, a mixing zone can be seen in the middle of this image. The clear Caroní water produces a less muddy zone for tens of kilometers downstream of the confluence (this part of the Orinoco flows almost due east, left to right).
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .