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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS012-E-11654.JPG 5229415201008 No No Not enhancedConverted to JPEG from a raw image
View ISS012-E-11654.JPG 72810639435 No No
View ISS012-E-11654.JPG 292215540358 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS012-E-11654.JPG 9310051000663 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site

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Mission: ISS012 Roll: E Frame: 11654 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS012
Country or Geographic Name: EGYPT
Center Point: Latitude: 22.5 Longitude: 31.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 43
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20051211 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 080840 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 24.6, Longitude: 29.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southeast
Sun Azimuth: 149 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 189 nautical miles (350 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 36 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 356


Lake Nasser and the New Valley

Cycles of flood and drought in the African Sahel are legendary, and they have provided the impetus for major waterworks on Africa’s great rivers. The construction of the Aswan High Dam on the Nile River, creating Lake Nasser in the 1960s, is the biggest and most visible project. Heavy rains in the source regions of the Nile in the 1990s resulted in record water levels in Lake Nasser. The abundance of water facilitated the Egyptian government’s promotion of another massive water distribution system called the New Valley. In 1997, Lake Nasser began flooding westward down a spillway into the Toshka depression in southern Egypt, creating four new lakes over the next few years.

Following the initial flooding, a pumping station and canal were constructed in 2000 to maintain water flow into the region, allowing for industrial and agricultural development in the desert. This view shows the completed Mubarek Pumping Station on Lake Nasser, the spillway that originally flooded the Toshka depression, the southern end of the first of the Toshka Lakes, part of the 50-kilometer-long main canal (the Sheikh Zayed Canal), side canals, and several new fields in the Egyptian desert northwest of Lake Nasser. Astronauts, cosmonauts, and space-based sensors have been monitoring these developments in Egypt since their inception in the late 1990s. The New Valley’s Toshka Lakes, and the new developments surrounding them, represent one of the most visible and rapid man-made changes on the Earth’s surface.

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