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File NameFile Size (bytes)WidthHeightAnnotatedCroppedPurposeComments
View ISS012-E-11639.JPG 6206315201008 No No Not enhancedConverted to JPEG from a raw image
View ISS012-E-11639.JPG 79948639435 No No
View ISS012-E-11639.JPG 298742540421 Yes Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site
View ISS012-E-11639.JPG 7966391000779 No Yes NASA's Earth Observatory web site

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Mission: ISS012 Roll: E Frame: 11639 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS012
Country or Geographic Name: EGYPT
Center Point: Latitude: 23.5 Longitude: 30.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)


Camera Tilt: 39
Camera Focal Length: 180mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.


Film Exposure:
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)


GMT Date: 20051211 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 080824 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 25.4, Longitude: 28.8 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)

Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Southeast
Sun Azimuth: 149 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 189 nautical miles (350 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 35 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 356


Decreasing Water Levels in Egypt’s Toshka Lakes

Nearly six years of regional drought and rapidly increasing demand for water have resulted in decreasing water levels in lakes throughout East Africa. Water levels in Africa’s largest lake, Lake Victoria, have dropped by about 1 meter (3 feet) over the past 10 years. The drought has similarly impacted the source regions of the Nile River, reducing water flows downstream into Egypt and Lake Nasser.

This image documents recent drops in water levels in the Toshka Lakes region of Egypt. The Toshka Lakes and the New Valley surrounding the lakes constitute a major Egyptian project to claim a huge area of desert for agriculture and industry by diverting Nile River water from Lake Nasser. The initial flooding occurred in the late 1990s, when Lake Nasser water levels were at an all-time high. The flooded regions of the Toshka Lakes west of Lake Nasser have decreased greatly over the years, exposing the former dune fields (dunes appear as islands in the lake and along the shoreline of the top image), and leaving a “bath-tub ring” of wetlands (dark region) surrounding the lake shorelines. As both the drought and development continue, this region of Egypt is sure to change.

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