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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS010 Roll: E Frame: 20111 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS010
Country or Geographic Name: PERU
Features: LIMA, PARK VEGETATION
Center Point: Latitude: -12.1 Longitude: -77.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 22
Camera Focal Length: 800mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20050317 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 172459 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -10.9, Longitude: -76.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: South
Sun Azimuth: 345 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 194 nautical miles (359 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 80 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 129
CaptionsLima Metropolitan Area, Peru
Located on the broad alluvial fan of the Rimac River, Lima is the capital of Peru and the only megacity (7.7 million inhabitants in 2002) located on the western coastline of South America. The city was established by Francisco Pizarro in 1535 and became an important colonial port, linking silver mines of the Altiplano of the high Andes Mountains with the burgeoning Spanish empire. During the mid-20th century, significant numbers of people relocated from rural mountain communities into the Lima metropolitan area. Problems now facing the metropolitan region include developing adequate water resources, controlling pollution, and preparing for natural hazards such as earthquakes and landslides.
This astronaut photograph depicts the wealthier San Isidro and Miraflores quarters of Lima. This part of the metropolitan area is characterized by numerous vegetated parks, golf courses (such as the Lima Golf Course—approximately 1 km long), and greenbelts interspersed with residential and commercial areas. The higher proportion of dark asphalt in the street grid of the residential and commercial areas lends a purple coloration to the left portion of the astronaut photograph (downtown Lima is to the north). Regions with fewer built materials and vegetation are light tan. Wave patterns are visible approaching beaches, popular tourist destinations, in the lower half of the image.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .