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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS008 Roll: E Frame: 21752 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS008
Country or Geographic Name: TURKEY
Features: ISTANBUL, BOSPORUS
Center Point Latitude: 41.0 Center Point Longitude: 29.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 34
Camera Focal Length: 200mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20040416 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 115724 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 41.8, Longitude: 31.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: West
Sun Azimuth: 229 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 193 nautical miles (357 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 49 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 2863
CaptionsIstanbul, Turkey: The Crossroads of Europe and Asia:
This metropolis of 15 million people occupies both sides of the entrance to the narrow, 20-mile long Bosporus Strait connecting the Mediterranean and Sea of Marmara (south) to the Black Sea (north). From its founding as Byzantium by the Greeks in 600 B.C., this strategically located city has been a focus of maritime trade and commerce as well as an outpost and threshold for cultural exchange and conflict between Europe and Asia. The modern city’s layout and architecture show the influences of both the Roman-Byzantine era when it became Constantinople, the world’s first Christian capital, as well as that of the conquering Ottoman Turks, from 1453, when it became the seat of the world’s largest Muslim Empire. Today Istanbul is Turkey’s economic capital and home to nearly half the country’s wealth.
This digital camera image was taken by the crew of the International Space Station on April 16, 2004. When this image was taken, strong currents carried turbid coastal waters from the Black Sea through the Strait and into the Sea of Marmara. The rugged uplands to the north of the city are forested and contain vital reservoirs. Note Ataturk airport southwest of the city near the bottom of the image, the picturesque Prince Islands in the Sea of Marmara, and the sinuous waterway and harbor on the western shore known as the Golden Horn.
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Recommended Citation: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .