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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS008 Roll: E Frame: 19236 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS008
Country or Geographic Name: MADAGASCAR
Features: BETSIBOKA RIVER DELTA, MAROVOAY
Center Point: Latitude: -16.0 Longitude: 46.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 39
Camera Focal Length: 195mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20040325 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 100429 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -13.5, Longitude: 47.3 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: South
Sun Azimuth: 311 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 196 nautical miles (363 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 67 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 2516
CaptionsISS008-E-19236 (25 March 2004) --- This image featuring the Betsiboka estuary on the northwest coast of Madagascar was taken by an Expedition 8 crewmember on the International Space Station (ISS). The Betsiboka estuary is the mouth of Madagascar’s largest river and one of the world’s fast-changing coastlines. Nearly a century of extensive logging of Madagascar’s rainforests and coastal mangroves has resulted in nearly complete clearing of the land and fantastic rates of erosion. After every heavy rain, the bright red soils are washed from the hillsides into the streams and rivers to the coast. Astronauts describe their view of Madagascar as “bleeding into the ocean”. One impact of the extensive 20th century erosion is the filling and clogging of coastal waterways with sediment – a process that is well illustrated in the Betsiboka estuary. In fact, ocean-going ships were once able to travel up the Betsiboka estuary, but must now berth at the coast.
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