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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS006 Roll: E Frame: 44689 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS006
Country or Geographic Name: BRAZIL
Features: SAO PAULO & SANTOS AT NIGHT
Center Point: Latitude: -23.5 Longitude: -46.5 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 21
Camera Focal Length: 85mm
Camera: E4: Kodak DCS760C Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
GMT Date: 20030412 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 023134 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: -23.9, Longitude: -45.2 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: West
Sun Azimuth: 207 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 216 nautical miles (400 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: -73 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1069
CaptionsA favorite activity of astronauts and cosmonauts aboard the International Space Station is looking at the city lights below when the Station crosses the Earth’s dark side. The lights outline the densest population centers and coastlines, and suggest cultural patterns. Taking these low-light images using the equipment on board the Station has been challenging to the crew members because of the long exposure times required. Astronaut Don Pettit, who leaves the station for Earth today (May 3, 2003), has pioneered an approach using a home-made tracking system to track the ground as it moves relative to the Station, allowing him to acquire long-exposure images under low light conditions. Don’s ingenious “Barn-Door Tracker” is a camera mount with a rigged with a hand drill to create a motion tracking system (see http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2003/24mar_noseprints.htm for a description).
This image shows the sprawling urban footprint of São Paulo, Brazil, South America’s largest city with roughly 17 million people. The different colors (pink, white, and gray) define different types and generations of streetlights. The port of Santos, on the right side of the photograph, is also well defined by lights.
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Recommended Citation: Earth Science and Remote Sensing Unit, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .