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The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth
(NASA Crew Earth Observations)
Astronaut Photography of Earth - Display Record
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IdentificationMission: ISS002 Roll: E Frame: 5325 Mission ID on the Film or image: ISS002
Country or Geographic Name: USA-NEW YORK
Features: NIAGARA FALLS
Center Point Latitude: 43.0 Center Point Longitude: -79.0 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Stereo: (Yes indicates there is an adjacent picture of the same area)
ONC Map ID: JNC Map ID:
CameraCamera Tilt: 19
Camera Focal Length: 800mm
Camera: E2: Kodak DCS460 Electronic Still Camera
Film: 3060E : 3060 x 2036 pixel CCD, RGBG array.
Percentage of Cloud Cover: 10 (0-10)
NadirGMT Date: 20010413 (YYYYMMDD) GMT Time: 222048 (HHMMSS)
Nadir Point Latitude: 42.0, Longitude: -79.6 (Negative numbers indicate south for latitude and west for longitude)
Nadir to Photo Center Direction: Northeast
Sun Azimuth: 267 (Clockwise angle in degrees from north to the sun measured at the nadir point)
Spacecraft Altitude: 209 nautical miles (387 km)
Sun Elevation Angle: 17 (Angle in degrees between the horizon and the sun, measured at the nadir point)
Orbit Number: 1706
CaptionsMark Twain once said of Niagara Falls: "Although it was wonderful to see all that water tumbling down, it would be even more wonderful to see all that water tumbling up."
Viewing the tumbling waters of the Niagara River from the microgravity environment of the International Space Station, astronauts recently acquired this image. They were at an orbit of 207 nautical miles (383 km) above the Falls, and used a digital camera with an 800 mm lens. In taking these kinds of detailed images, Space Station crewmembers have compensated for the relative motion of the Earth, thus achieving spatial resolutions of less than 6 m and surpassing the previous records for spatial resolution from human spaceflight. Details of the city of Niagara Falls are easy to see; for spatial reference, the American falls is 328 m wide (1075 ft), and the Horseshoe Falls is 675 m wide (2200 ft).
The Niagara River forms the U.S.-Canadian Border and allows Lake Erie to drain northwest into Lake Ontario. Lake Ontario is about 100 m lower than Lake Erie; the Falls and the rapids account for most of the elevation difference. The energy derived from water falling over the falls, with average total flows of 750,000 U.S. gallons (2.8 million liters) per second, fuel multiple power plants on the river. Power Plants downstream from the plant generate 4.4 million kilowatts of power for both Ontario and New York.
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Recommended Citation: Image Science and Analysis Laboratory, NASA-Johnson Space Center. "The Gateway to Astronaut Photography of Earth." .