JPG File 1.05M
Climatic forcing by human activity - July 1993. Models suggest that net cooling may result over the major industrial regions of the world - eastern North America, western Europe, and east Asia - as a result of the reflective effect of anthropogenic haze in the atmosphere (-1 W per swaure meter and more in the centers of areas A, B, and C). Smoke from biomass burning explains the major southern hemisphere cooling center in Angola (D). Models further suggest an extensive zone a warming south of the equator (shaded box, +1 W per square meter over the oceanic sectors). Cooling in the centers of regions A, B, and C, with warming in much of the shaded box increases temperature gradients (adapted from Kiehl and Briegleb, 1993, and Charlson and Wigley, 1994).